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It is a member of the leaf beetle family, Chrysomelidae, and not a true weevil.This common pest of stored legumes has a cosmopolitan distribution, occurring on every continent except Antarctica. 1976).  In India, Cowpea known as Chowli (Hindi) or Alasande (Kannada) is used to make curry and gravy to be eaten along with rice or roti.  However, it does contain some antinutritional elements, notable phytic acid and protease inhibitors, which reduce the nutritional value of the crop. The weevil develops into a sexually mature adult within the seed. The grain provides valuable protein and the leaves are used as a nutritious vegetable.  This complements the mainly cereal diet in countries that grow cowpeas as a major food crop.  The first written references to the cowpea were in 300 BC and they probably reached Central and North America during the slave trade through the 17th to early 19th centuries. Background. 1982). BACKGROUND AND MOTIVATION OF THE STUDY Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata(L.) Walp) is an indigenous African legume crop that is widely cultivated in the semi-arid tropical regions of Asia, Oceania, Africa, the Middle East, southern United States of America and Central and South America (Singh et al.2002). It improves soil fertility because of its ability to fix nitrogen efficiently (up to 240 kg N per hectare) and can leave a fixed- N deposit in the soil of up to 60 – 70 kg/ha for the succecding crop (Rechie, 1985; Kachare, et al.1988).  The plant is susceptible to mosaic viruses, which cause a green mosaic pattern to appear in the leaves. It is also utilized as fodder and as quick growing cover-crop. Rar.  A pod can contain six to 13 seeds that are usually kidney-shaped, although the seeds become more spherical the more restricted they are within the pod. against this background that a study as this has been undertaken to evaluate eight varieties of cowpea in altisol (Asaba agro-ecological environment with a view to selecting the variety (ies) that will best adapt to the conditions in the Southern part of Nigeria using Asaba agro-ecological environment as case study.  Slaves brought to America and the West Indies cooked cowpeas much the same way as they did in Africa, although many people in the American South considered cowpeas not suitable for human consumption.  Remains of charred cowpeas from rock shelters in Central Ghana have been dated to the second millennium BCE. The beans are also known by other names such as blackeye beans, southern peas, …  Crop wild relatives are the prominent source of genetic material, which can be tapped to improve biotic/abiotic tolerance in crops.  A seed can consist of 25% protein and has very low fat content. Background: Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) serves as a major food and income generation crop for millions of people in sub-Saharan Africa and Central America.  From there they traveled north to the Mediterranean, where they were used by the Greeks and Romans.  Cowpea starch is digested more slowly than the starch from cereals, which is more beneficial to human health. breeding lines in the IIT A collection, seed protein. Leaves can be picked from 4 weeks after planting.  One of the more recent developments is the use a cheap, reusable double-bagging system (called PICs) that asphyxiates the cowpea weevils.  Like other legumes, cowpeas are cooked to make them edible, usually by boiling. , The first written reference of the word 'cowpea' appeared in 1798 in the United States.  The grain is a rich source of folic acid, an important vitamin that helps prevent neural tube defects in unborn babies. This study examined outcrossing rates and genetic structures in 35 wild cowpea (Vigna unguiculata ssp.  Other important pests include pod sucking bugs, thrips, and the postharvest cowpea weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus. Cowpea is grown mainly for the seed and sometimes pods in West Africa, India and South America, but it is grown for both seeds, pods and leaves in East Africa. It is a subsistence crop, often intercropped with sorghum, maize and pearl millet. Finally, to all members of “The Prayer Stronghold International Ministries” family friends ... General background and History 5 2.1.3.  The legume pod borer, Maruca vitrata, is the main preharvest pest of the cowpea. COMPARATIVE STUDY OF THE GROWTH PERFORMANCE OF FOUR COMMERCIAL FISH FEEDS IN THE PRODUCTION OF AFRICAN CATFISH (CLARIAS GARIEPINUS). A review of the genetics, genomics and breeding of cowpea … Cowpea grains contain around 22% protein and provide a cheap source of dietary protein for low-income urban and rural populations.  Drought lowers the growth rate and development, ultimately reducing yield, although cowpea is considered more drought tolerant than most other crops. Like other grain legumes, cowpeas are a good source of energy, proteins (amino acids), vitamins, minerals and deitary fiber. As well as an important source of food for humans in poor, arid regions, the crop can also be used as feed for livestock. Unguiculata is Latin for "with a small claw", which reflects the small stalks on the flower petals. 1976). Millions of african farmers grow cowpea, some two hundred million africans consume The . RESULTS The whole plant is used as forage for animals, with its use as cattle feed likely responsible for its name. They thrive in poor conditions, growing well in soils ipto 85% sand. BACKGROUND. Higher meat prices during recent years and the need for protein- rich foods have led people in the most developing countries to shift their consumption to cowpeas and other grain legumes.  While the insect can cause damage through all growth stages, most of the damage occurs during flowering. Cowpeas were domesticated in Africa and are one of the oldest crops to be farmed.  In 2300 BC, the cowpea is believed to have made its way into Southeast Asia, where secondary domestication events may have occurred. Due to its tolerance for sandy soil and low rainfall, it is an important crop in the semiarid regions across Africa and Asia.  Sesquipedalis in Latin means "foot and a half long", and this subspecies which arrived in the United States via Asia is characterised by unusually long pods, leading to the common names of yardlong bean, asparagus bean, and Chinese long-bean. , M. vitrata causes the most damage to the growing cowpea due to their large host range and cosmopolitan distribution. Chloe Bustillo. The commonly used washing treatments in household processing were used for comparison. Cowpea is a drought-resistant crop, a characteristic that makes it ideal for growth in East and West Africa. The cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) is an annual herbaceous legume from the genus Vigna. Background. conten t ranged f rom 23 to 32% of seed weight (Nielson et al.  The weevil generally enters the cowpea pod through holes before harvest and lays eggs on the dry seed.  Cowpeas can be prepared in stews, soups, purees, casseroles and curries. , Storage of the seeds can be problematic in Africa due to potential infestation by postharvest pests.  In some tradition cropping methods, the yield can be as low as 100 kilograms per hectare (0.045 short ton/acre). The beans are also known by other names such as blackeye beans, southern peas, colossus peas and crowther peas. Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.) is an important grain and forage legume grown throughout sub-Saharan Africa primarily by subsistence farmers on poor, drought prone soils.Genetic improvement of the crop is being actively pursued and numerous functional genomics studies are underway aimed at characterizing gene controlling key agronomic characteristics for disease and pest … "Bionomics, host plant resistance, and management of the legume pod borer, "Genetic Differentiation among Maruca vitrata F. (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) Populations on Cultivated Cowpea and Wild Host Plants: Implications for Insect Resistance Management and Biological Control Strategies", "Pest management practices in cowpea: a review", "Effects of Transgenic Cry1Ac + CpTI Cotton on Non-Target Mealybug Pest, "Screening for Drought Tolerance in Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) at Seedling Stage under Screen House Condition", "Diversity of Drought Tolerance in the Genus Vigna", "Africa Imports - African Recipes - Red-Red Stew", "The Long and the Short of Yard-Long Beans", Cowpea research at the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA), Network for Genetic Improvement of Cowpea for All (NGICA), Consensus Document on Compositional Considerations for New Varieties of COWPEA (Vigna unguiculata): Key Food and Feed Nutrients, Anti-nutrients and Other Constituents, OECD Series on the Safety of Novel Foods and Feeds No.  They can also be processed into a paste or flour. Early-maturing varieties of the crop can thrive in the semiarid climate, where rainfall is often less than 500 mm (20 in). Some abiotic and biotic stresses adversely affect its productivity.  An individual bruchid can lay 20–40 eggs, and in optimal conditions, each egg can develop into a reproductively active adult in 3 weeks. A high level of morphological diversity is found within the species with large variations in the size, shape, and structure of the plant. Background: Plant-growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) and arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi have the ability to enhance the growth, fitness, and quality of various agricultural crops, including cowpea.  International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA), Nigeria and Institut de I’Environment ae de Recherches Agricoles are working on cowpea crop wild relatives to tap the genetic diversity and transfer that into cultivars to make them more tolerant to different stresses and adaptive to climate change. Traditional methods of protecting stored grain include using the insecticidal properties of Neem extracts, mixing the grain with ash or sand, using vegetable oils, combining ash and oil into a soap solution or treating the cowpea pods with smoke or heat. Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) and moringa (Moringa oleifera) ... the burden of taking care of my kids during the last few months of this study. The objectives of the study were to determine the extent of genetic diversity present among a collection of cowpea accessions from Zambia and Malawi using phenotypic traits and single nucleotide …  Chinese long beans can be eaten raw or cooked, but as they easily become waterlogged are usually sautéed, stir-fried, or deep-fried.. Cowpea is most widely consumed legume in Nigeria as it represents a cheap source of dietary protein. The effect of anti-nutritional factors (tannin, phytic acid , and tryps in inhibitors) on cowpea protein, The proximate and mineral composition of cowpea grains. Similarly, pr otein content of. Cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.] Review of Politics and Public Policy in Emerging Economies Vol.  They also use the cowpea paste as a supplement in infant formula when weaning babies off milk.  The legume pod borer Maruca vitrata is the main preharvest pest of the cowpea and the cowpea weevil Callosobruchus maculatus the main postharvest pest.  Flower colour varies through different shades of purple, pink, yellow, and white and blue. Colours include white, cream, green, red, brown, and black, or various combinations. , Cowpeas are grown mostly for their edible beans, although the leaves, green seeds and pods can also be consumed, meaning the cowpea can be used as a food source before the dried peas are harvested. , The cowpea has often been referred to as "poor man's meat" due to the high levels of protein found in the seeds and leaves. However, field trials confirming the benefits of microbes in large-scale applications using economically viable and efficient inoculation methods are still scarce.  The taproot can penetrate to a depth of 2.4 m (7 ft 10 in) after eight weeks. , The optimum temperature for cowpea growth is 30 °C (86 °F), making it only available as a summer crop for most of the world. The seeds can be harvested after about 100 days or the whole plant used as forage after about 120 days. Cowpea seeds acts as a major source of protein (22-24%), vitamins and minerals (Coetzee 1995). It requires very few inputs, as the plant's root nodules are able to fix atmospheric nitrogen, making it a valuable crop for resource-poor farmers and well-suited to intercropping with other crops. BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY. A second domestication event probably occurred in Asia, before they spread into Europe and the Americas.  However, as the plant is primarily self-pollinating, its genetic diversity within varieties is relatively low. Over 60% of cowpea growing area is in west and central Africa (WCA), but a Cowpeas can be erect, semierect (trailing), or climbing.  CPMV is stable and easy to propagate to a high yield, making it useful in vector development and protein expression systems. 1.1 Background of the Study Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L).Walp) is a tropical grain legume widely grown in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), Asia, parts of the United States and Southern Europe (Singh et al., Despite the importance of cowpea (Vigna unguculata L. The timing of planting is crucial, as the plant must mature during the seasonal rains. 1.1 Background of the Study 1 1.2 Problem Statement 6 1.3 Objectives of the Study 10 1.4 Justification of the Study 10 1.5 Organisation of the Study 14 CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW 15 2.1 Introduction 15 2.2 Cowpea Production 15 2.2.1 Economic importance of cowpea production 15 2.2.2 Determinants of cowpea production 18 They can have a smooth or rough coat and be speckled, mottled, or blotchy. Cowpea is a legume that is extensively grown throughout sub-Saharan Africa.  The Sahel region also contains other major producers such as Burkina Faso, Ghana, Senegal, and Mali. , The size and shape of the leaves vary greatly, making this an important feature for classifying and distinguishing cowpea varieties. In a study of 100 cowpea. , Outside Africa, the major production areas are Asia, Central America, and South America. , Besides biotic stresses, cowpea also faces various challenges in different parts of the world such as drought, heat, and cold. One peduncle can support four or more seed pods. Due to its tolerance for sandy soil and low rainfall, it is an important crop in the semiarid regions across Africa and Asia.  Although little research has been conducted on the nutritional value of the leaves and immature pods, what is available suggests that the leaves have a similar nutritional value to black nightshade and sweet potato leaves, while the green pods have less antinutritional factors than the dried seeds.  Common diseases include blights, root rot, wilt, powdery mildew, root knot, rust and leaf spot. , Insects are a major factor in the low yields of African cowpea crops, and they affect each tissue component and developmental stage of the plant. The specific objectives of this study were to assess: Legumes are primarily important as sources of protein in diets in many parts of the world. Background. 1993). Genetic improvement of the crop is being actively … Background Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) is the most important grain legume and fodder crop in the dry savannas of tropical Africa. Cowpeas (Vigna unguiculata and Vigna Senensis) are important grain legumes in East and West Africa as well other developing countries (Dovlo et al. Cowpea is the most important food grain legume in Sub-Saharan Africa. Using an adapted cowpea variety that is more compatible with warm season grasses may help to overcome this issue.  The most common methods of protection involve the use of insecticides, the main pesticides used being carbamates, synthetic pyrethoids, and organophosphates. Reduction of six pesticide residues (isoprocarb, chlorpyrifos, bifenthrin, beta‐cypermethrin, difenoconazole and azoxystrobin) in cowpea by alkaline electrolysed water (AlEW) solutions with different pH was investigated. However, post-harvest losses associated with this crop still remain a critical issue of concern in most developing countries.  One of the plant's defenses against some insect attacks is the cowpea trypsin inhibitor (CpTI). , Seeds and seed pods from wild cowpeas are very small, while cultivated varieties can have pods between 10 and 110 cm (4 and 43 in) long.  This makes them a particularly important crop in arid, semidesert regions where not many other crops will grow.  Although there is no archaeological evidence for early cowpea cultivation, the centre of diversity of the cultivated cowpea is West Africa, leading an early consensus that this is the likely centre of origin and place of early domestication. Increase in vegetable protein, vitamin and soluble carbohydrates supply from cowpea in malnourished areas presents a less difficult, less expensive and more energy efficient solution.  Their texture and colour are very diverse. The objectives of this study were to analyse the cowpea transcriptome and develop genic molecular markers for future genetic studies of this genus. spontanea) populations from West Africa, using Over time, cowpeas became more universally accepted and now Hoppin' John is seen as a traditional Southern dish ritually served on New Year's Day. 1995; Bravo et al., 1994; Bhattacharya et al. 1, No 1, June 2019 55 Cowpea, (Vigna unguiculata), annual plant within the pea family (Fabaceae) grown for its edible legumes. It is part of a crop-weed complex, whose origin and dynamics is unknown, which is distributed across the African continent. unguiculata var. It is a high protein food and forms a … , Cowpeas thrive in poor dry conditions, growing well in soils up to 85% sand. It is part of a crop-weed complex, whose origin and dynamics is unknown, which is distributed across the African continent. ... Glutinous Rice Flour and Addition of Cowpea Flour. Generally, 133,000 seeds are planted per hectare (54,000/acre) for the erect varieties and 60,000 per hectare (24,000/acre) for the climbing and trailing varieties. Hence, this research was initiated with the Estimating world cowpea production is rather difficult, as it is usually grown in a mixture with other crops, but according to a 1997 estimate, cowpeas are cultivated on 12.5 million hectares (31 million acres) and have a worldwide production of 3 million tonnes. It requires very few inputs, as the plant's root nodules are able to fix atmospheric nitrogen, making it a valuable crop for resource-poor farmers and well-suited to intercropping with other crops. This trend has been observed in parts of northern Nigeria where pork and pork products, horse meat, donkey meat and meat of camels and asses are avoided by muslims. Four subspecies of cowpeas are recognised, of which three are cultivated. Cowpea seeds provide a rich source of proteins and calories, as well as minerals and vitamins. , Severe C. maculatus infestations can affect 100% of the stored peas and cause up to 60% loss within a few months.  Drought at the preflowering stage in cowpea can reduce the yield potential by 360 kg/ha.  Cowpeas can either be short and bushy (as short as 20 cm or 8 in) or act like a vine by climbing supports or trailing along the ground (to a height of 2 m or 6 ft 7 in). Uses of cowpea …  Biological control has had limited success, so most preventive methods rely on the use of agrichemicals. In addition to their use as a protein-rich food crop, cowpeas are extensively grown cowpea crop species on the farmers’ land, distribution status, finding the suitable solution for the major production areas in the study area, what are the constraints of cowpea productions in the study area and so on?  Common names for cultivated cowpeas include; black-eye pea, southern pea, niebe (alternatively ñebbe), and crowder pea. Intense efforts to find alternative sources of proteins from plants adapted to adverse conditions are being conducted around the world (Siddhuraju et al. Background 5 2.1.4. , A large morphological diversity is found within the crop, and the growth conditions and grower preferences for each variety vary from region to region. Warm season mixes may also simply outcompete cowpea, specifically warm season grasses such as millet and sorghum-sudangrass. It is mostly cultivated by small-scale (subsistence) farmers, usually intercropped with maize or sorghum. Background: Cowpea is a highly inbred crop. They are grown mainly for their edible beans. Dietary Supplement: Cowpea fortified with NaFeEDTA, in form of Toubani. Brazil is the world's second-leading producer of cowpea seed, accounting for 17% of annual cowpea production, although most is consumed within the country. , While the date of cultivation began may be uncertain, it is still considered one of the oldest domesticated crops. The cowpea is an annual herbaceous legume from the genus Vigna. Study subjects will receive 3 times per week, as part of the school feeding programme 66g of raw fortified cowpea (with added 10mg Fe as NaFeEDTA)in form of Toubani (a cowpea based snack). Background:Nutritional anemia is a public health problem among Ghanaian schoolchildren. 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