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 From the mid-1970s to the 1990s, Cantonese films made in Hong Kong were very popular in the Chinese speaking world. Please check back! Cantonese proper is the variety native to the city of Canton, which is the traditional English name of Guangzhou. But which form of Chinese? Some effort has been undertaken to promote Jyutping, but the success of its proliferation within the region has yet to be examined. , In Mainland China, Standard Chinese (based on Mandarin) has been heavily promoted as the medium of instruction in schools and as the official language, especially after the communist takeover in 1949. Television networks in Malaysia regularly broadcast Hong Kong television programmes in their original Cantonese audio and soundtrack. This can be exemplified in the elimination of the contrast of sounds between 吳 (Ng, a surname) (ng4/ǹgh in Guangzhou pronunciation) and 唔 (not) (m4/m̀h in Guangzhou pronunciation). However, "Cantonese" may also refer to the primary branch of Chinese that contains Cantonese proper as well as Taishanese and Gaoyang; this broader usage may be specified as "Yue speech" (粵語; 粤语; Yuhtyúh). Spoken Chinese has numerous regional and local varieties, many of which are mutually unintelligible. Most mainlanders are capable of reciting literature only in Mandarin, irrespective of their native tongue (which includes Cantonese). We made using the - Cantonese Language Course - Basic Course material easier to use and more effective. In the 2011 census, the Australian Bureau of Statistics listed 336,410 and 263,673 speakers of Mandarin and Cantonese, respectively. Due to its status as a prestige dialect among all the dialects of the Yue branch of Chinese varieties, it is often called "Standard Cantonese" (標準粵語; 标准粤语; Bīujéun Yuhtyúh). A 2010 proposal to switch some programming on Guangzhou television from Cantonese to Mandarin was abandoned following massive public protests, the largest since the Tiananmen Square protests of 1989. , While Thailand is home to the largest overseas Chinese community in the world, the vast majority of ethnic Chinese in the country speak Thai exclusively. , Despite the cession of Macau to Portugal in 1557 and Hong Kong to Britain in 1842, the ethnic Chinese population of the two territories largely originated from the 19th and 20th century immigration from Guangzhou and surrounding areas, making Cantonese the predominant Chinese language in the territories. In part 13 of our Cantonese blog we look at how to use the language in the hairdressers or barbers. However, it includes extra characters as well as characters with different meanings from written vernacular Chinese due to the presence of words that either do not exist in standard Chinese or correspond with spoken Cantonese. In Vietnam, Cantonese is the dominant language of the ethnic Chinese community, usually referred to as Hoa, which numbers about one million people and constitutes one of the largest minority groups in the country. Historically, finals that end in a stop consonant were considered as "checked tones" and treated separately by diachronic convention, identifying Cantonese with nine tones (九声六调). In these areas, public discourse takes place almost exclusively in Cantonese, making it the only variety of Chinese other than Mandarin to be used as an official language in the world. Although termed as "lazy sound" (懶音) and considered substandard to Guangzhou pronunciation, the phenomenon has been widespread in the territories since the early 20th century. Chinese is the third most widely spoken non-English language in the United States when both Cantonese and Mandarin are combined, behind Spanish and French. A basic sentence is in the form of SVO, i.e. Cantonese is also widely spoken amongst Overseas Chinese in Southeast Asia (most notably in Vietnam and Malaysia, as well as in Singapore and Cambodia to a lesser extent) and throughout the Western world. A notable difference between Cantonese and Mandarin is how the spoken word is written; both can be recorded verbatim, but very few Cantonese speakers are knowledgeable in the full Cantonese written vocabulary, so a non-verbatim formalized written form is adopted, which is more akin to the Mandarin written form. Variety of Yue Chinese spoken in Guangzhou, Hong Kong and Macau, This article is about the variety of Chinese widely spoken in Guangdong, Hong Kong and Macau. They have been proven effective for learning Cantonese if you put in the effort to go through the lessons. Saying these universal greetings to the locals in their own language is polite and goes a long way toward encouraging good feelings and a good impression of both you and the United States in Hong Kong. Cantonese is spoken by a little over 15% of Chinese households in Singapore. Increasingly since the 1997 Handover, Cantonese has been used as a symbol of local identity in Hong Kong, largely through the development of democracy in the territory and desinicization practices to emphasise a separate Hong Kong identity.  Despite a ban on Cantonese films by the Nanjing authority in the 1930s, Cantonese film production continued in Hong Kong which was then under British colonial rule. In my first month learning Cantonese, I really didn't know what I was doing, so my progress was extremely slow. While older Taiwanese immigrants have learned Cantonese to foster integration within the traditional Chinese American populations, more recent arrivals from the Mainland continue to use Mandarin exclusively. Both the spellings of Hong Kong and Macau Cantonese romanization systems do not look similar to the mainland China's pinyin system. Latest version: The basic course Cantonese was completely revised in 2020. The Zhongshan variant of Cantonese, with origins in the western Pearl River Delta, is spoken by many Chinese immigrants in Hawaii, and some in San Francisco and the Sacramento River Delta (see Locke, California); it is a Yuehai variety much like Guangzhou Cantonese, but has "flatter" tones. In contrast, Southern California hosts a much larger Mandarin-speaking population, with Cantonese found in more historical Chinese communities such as that of Chinatown, Los Angeles, and older Chinese ethnoburbs such as San Gabriel, Rosemead, and Temple City. I would get extra exposure to Cantonese by listening to podcasts, music, or other audio whilst driving. A similar situation also exists in neighboring Macau, where Chinese is an official language alongside Portuguese. Unlike the United States, recent immigration from mainland China and Taiwan to Canada has been small, and Cantonese still remains the predominant Chinese variety in the country..  While the term Cantonese specifically refers to the prestige variety, it is often used to refer to the entire Yue subgroup of Chinese, including related but largely mutually unintelligible languages and dialects such as Taishanese. Many speakers reflect their exposure to Vietnamese with a Vietnamese accent or a tendency to code-switch between Cantonese and Vietnamese.. The BC system was also used in textbooks published by the Hong Kong government. In practice, Hong Kong follows a loose, unnamed romanization scheme used by the Government of Hong Kong. Furthermore, an offshoot of SMC is the translation to Hanyu Pinyin of certain terms which originated from southern Chinese varieties. Each of the 28 units deals with a grammatical topic and provides associated exercises, designed to put grammar into a communicative context. Cantonese is the third most-spoken language in Australia. We made using the FSI - Cantonese - Basic Course - Volume 1 material easier to use and more effective. Chau vs Chao 周, Leung vs Leong 梁). The vagueness of listing Chinese as the official language allows for the wide use of Cantonese… Cantonese has traditionally been the dominant Chinese language of the Chinese Australian community since the first ethnic Chinese settlers arrived in the 1850s. how do you say (this) in Cantonese? At the same time, some new words created are vividly borrowed by other languages as well. Basic Cantonese introduces the essentials of Cantonese grammar in a straightforward and systematic way. Romanization was considered both a tool to help new missionaries learn the variety more easily and a quick route for the unlettered to achieve gospel literacy. The most popular romanization for learning Cantonese in the United States is Yale Romanization. Here you can find the translation of the 50 most important words and expressions into Cantonese. Cantonese has some substrate influence from Kra–Dai languages due to the historic proximity of speakers from both linguistic groups.. Cantonese, or Standard Cantonese, is a language that originated in the vicinity of Canton (i.e., Guangzhou) in southern China, and is often regarded as the prestige dialect of Yue. Together with its sister volume, Intermediate Cantonese, it forms a structured course of the essentials of Cantonese grammar. $49.99/month or $249.95/year for all languages. Many artists from the Mainland and Taiwan have learned Cantonese to break into the market. Consequently, there is a growing number of non-Cantonese Chinese Singaporeans being able to understand or speak Cantonese to some varying extent, with a number of educational institutes offering Cantonese as an elective language course. Cantonese first developed around the port city of Guangzhou in the Pearl River Delta region of southeastern China. You can now read the ebook (in the pane on the left), listen to the audio (pane to the right) and practice your pronunciation (use on the Pronunciation Tool tab on right) all at the same time.. As a result, Cantonese is being given a more important status by the natives than ever before as a common identity of the local people..  Cantonese was also used in the popular Yuè'ōu, Mùyú and Nányīn folksong genres, as well as Cantonese opera. Despite the efforts to standardize Cantonese romanization, those learning the language may feel frustrated that most native Cantonese speakers, regardless of their level of education, are unfamiliar with any romanization system. Cantonese is the most common Chinese variety spoken among Chinese Canadians. Cantonese, like every Chinese language, uses a character-based writing system, where each character corresponds to a block of meaning, not a sound. Instances of the letter ⟨u⟩ under Hong Kong's romanization systems are often replaced by ⟨o⟩ under Macao's romanization systems (e.g. , In Indonesia, Cantonese is locally known as Konghu and is one of the variants spoken by the Chinese Indonesian community, with speakers largely concentrated in major cities such as Jakarta, Surabaya and Batam. Category: Language Basic Cantonese – Part 13 (hair cut) Posted on September 22, 2017 by . In this article, "Cantonese" is used for Cantonese proper. Although Hokkien is the most spoken variety of Chinese, and Mandarin is the medium of education at Chinese-language schools, Cantonese is largely influential in the local Chinese-language media and is used in commerce by Chinese Malaysians. This method of marking tones was adopted in the Yale romanization (with low register tones marked with an 'h'). The majority of Chinese emigrants have traditionally originated from Guangdong and Guangxi, as well as Hong Kong and Macau (beginning in the latter half of the 20th century and before the Handover) and Southeast Asia, with Cantonese as their native language. As in the United States, there is a divide between Cantonese-speakers and those speaking other mainland Chinese varieties.  Over half of the ethnic Chinese population in Vietnam speaks Cantonese as a native language and the variety also serves as a lingua franca between the different Chinese dialect groups. The newly emerged Little Fuzhou eastern portion of Manhattan's Chinatown and Brooklyn's main large Chinatown in and around Sunset Park are mostly populated by Fuzhounese speakers, who often speak Mandarin as well.  Mandarin predominates in much of the emergent Chinese American enclaves in eastern Los Angeles County and other areas of the metropolitan region.  Cantonese emerged as the prestige variety of Yue Chinese when the port city of Guangzhou on the Pearl River Delta became the largest port in China, with a trade network stretching as far as Arabia.  The Chinese language has many different varieties, of which Cantonese is one. During the Southern Song period, Guangzhou became the cultural center of the region. As Cantonese is used primarily in Hong Kong, Macau, and other overseas Chinese communities, it is usually written with traditional Chinese characters.  The permitted usage of Cantonese in mainland China is largely a countermeasure against Hong Kong's influence, as the autonomous territory has the right to freedom of the press and speech and its Cantonese-language media have a substantial exposure and following in Guangdong. , Nevertheless, the place of local Cantonese language and culture remains contentious. Videos, podcast, grammar lessons, language tips and more to start you on your Cantonese learning journey.  This is largely due to the presence of British Hong Kongers and the fact that many British Chinese also have origins in the former British colonies in Southeast Asia of Singapore and Malaysia. Given the history of the development of the Yue languages and dialects during the Tang dynasty migrations to the region, in overseas Chinese communities, it is also referred to as "Tang speech" (唐話; Tòhng wá), given that the Cantonese people refer to themselves as "people of Tang" (唐人; Tòhng yàhn). Each of the 28 units deals with a grammatical topic and provides associated exercises, designed to put grammar into a communicative context. The tones in Cantonese make it a tongue-twister and a high mountain to climb even if all you want to do is get familiar with a few simple phrases and words. a subject is followed by a verb then by an object, though this order is often violated because Cantonese is a topic-prominent language.Unlike synthetic languages, seldom do words indicate time, gender and number by inflection. The major systems are: Jyutping, Yale, the Chinese government's Guangdong Romanization, and Meyer–Wempe. Learn Simple Words and Phrases for Common Requests. Cantonese is from the Sino-Tibetan family of languages. However, these are seldom counted as phonemic tones in modern linguistics, which prefer to analyse them as conditioned by the following consonant.. Because Cantonese is primarily a spoken language and does not carry its own writing system (written Cantonese, despite having some Chinese characters unique to it, primarily follows modern standard Chinese, which is closely tied to Mandarin), it is not taught in schools. Due to the linguistic history of Hong Kong and Macau, and the use of Cantonese in many established overseas Chinese communities, the use of Cantonese is quite widespread compared to the presence of its speakers residing in China.  Among Chinese-speaking Thai households, Cantonese is the fourth most-spoken variety of Chinese after Teochew, Hakka and Hainanese. The de facto standard pronunciation of Cantonese is that of Canton (Guangzhou).  Hong Kong (Cantonese) and Taiwanese dramas are unavailable in their untranslated form on free-to-air television, though drama series in non-Chinese languages are available in their original languages. It is the traditional prestige variety of the Yue Chinese dialect group, which has over 80 million native speakers.  Many institutes of higher education have traditionally had Chinese programs based on Cantonese, with some continuing to offer these programs despite the rise of Mandarin. Another key feature of Hong Kong Cantonese is the merging of the two syllabic nasals /ŋ̩/ and /m̩/. However, more recent immigrants are arriving from the rest of mainland China and Taiwan and most often speak Standard Mandarin (Putonghua) as their native language, although some may also speak their native local variety, such as Shanghainese, Hokkien, Fuzhounese, Hakka, etc. What Is the Difference Between Mandarin and Cantonese? You might also think knowing a little Chinese might come in handy. Here are some phrases that are helpful as you dine and buy. Choose from 500 different sets of basic cantonese languages flashcards on Quizlet. The official languages of Hong Kong are Chinese and English, as defined in the Hong Kong Basic Law. and Goodbye in Cantonese! As a result, Mandarin is becoming more common among the Chinese American community. Over the course of the last year, I rarely studied Cantonese for more than 15-30 minutes a day. We will teach you: How to say Hello! tsen lei gon man di: Back to Learn Cantonese. For instance, dim sum is often known as diǎn xīn in Singapore's English-language media, though this is largely a matter of style, and most Singaporeans will still refer to it as dim sum when speaking English. It maintained this status until the mid-2000s, when a heavy increase in immigration from Mandarin-speakers largely from Mainland China led to Mandarin surpassing Cantonese as the dominant Chinese dialect spoken. The vagueness of listing Chinese as the official language allows for the wide use of Cantonese… CantoneseClass101.com - Learn Cantonese with … Most of these are rare outside their native areas, though they may be spoken outside of China. Earlier Catholic missionaries, mostly Portuguese, had developed romanization schemes for the pronunciation current in the court and capital city of China but made few efforts to romanize other varieties. Cantonese has a reputation as a difficult language to learn, especially if you're not familiar with tonal languages. Knowing the name of major countries and nearby areas might come in handy while visiting Hong Kong. A collection of useful phrases in Cantonese, a variety of Chinese spoken in Hong Kong, Macau, southern China, and a number of other places, in … The phonetic values of some consonants are closer to the approximate equivalents in IPA than in other systems. The increase of Mandarin-speaking communities has resulted in the rise of separate neighborhoods or enclaves segregated by the primary Chinese variety spoken. , A similar identity issue exists in the United States, where conflicts have arisen among Chinese-speakers due to a large recent influx of Mandarin-speakers. It was the standard romanization until the Yale system supplanted it. To adapt the system to the needs of users at a time when there were only local variants and no standard—although the speech of the western suburbs, Xiguan, of Guangzhou was the prestige variety at the time—Williams suggested that users learn and follow their teacher's pronunciation of his chart of Cantonese syllables. Cantonese Class 101. Cantonese is viewed as a vital and inseparable part of the cultural identity for its native speakers across large swaths of Southeastern China, Hong Kong and Macau, as well as in overseas communities. The Chinese language has many different varieties, of which Cantonese is one.Given the traditional predominance of Cantonese within Hong Kong, it is the de facto official spoken form of the Chinese language used in the Hong Kong Government and all courts and tribunals. In Northern California, especially in the San Francisco Bay Area, Cantonese has historically and continues to dominate in the Chinatowns of San Francisco and Oakland, as well as the surrounding suburbs and metropolitan area, although since the late 2000s, a concentration of Mandarin speakers has formed in Silicon Valley. The dialect is also widely spoken as well in the town of Sekinchan in the district of Basic Cantonese Characters Are Based On Simple Pictures And Ideas. He derived an IPA-based transcription system, the S. L. Wong system, used by many Chinese dictionaries later published in Hong Kong. Sabak Bernam located in the northern part of Selangor state and also in the state of Perak, especially in the state capital city of Ipoh and its surrounding towns of Gopeng, Batu Gajah, and Kampar of the Kinta Valley region plus the towns of Tapah and Bidor in the southern part of the Perak state, and also widely spoken in the eastern Sabahan town of Sandakan as well as the towns of Kuantan, Raub, Bentong, and Mentakab in Pahang state, and they are also found in other areas such as Sarikei, Sarawak, and Mersing, Johor. Although Wong also derived a romanization scheme, also known as the S. L. Wong system, it is not widely used as his transcription scheme. Books and studies for teachers and students in primary and secondary schools usually use this scheme. While a slight majority of ethnic Chinese from Indochina speak Teochew at home, knowledge of Cantonese is prevalent due to its historic prestige status in the region and is used for commercial and community purposes between the different Chinese variety groups. Bridgman and Williams based their system on the phonetic alphabet and diacritics proposed by Sir William Jones for South Asian languages. Nevertheless, colloquial characters may be present in formal written communications such as legal testimonies and newspapers when an individual is being quoted, rather than paraphrasing spoken Cantonese into standard written Chinese. Among the Chinese community in France, Cantonese is spoken by immigrants who fled the former French Indochina (Vietnam, Cambodia and Laos) following the conflicts and communist takeovers in the region during the 1970s. FSI- Cantonese - Basic Course - Volume 2 This is Volume I (of 2) of the FSI Cantonese course. (By study, I mean any activity where I was focused on learning the language.  Cantonese remained a dominant and influential language in southeastern China until the establishment of the People's Republic of China in 1949 and its promotion of Standard Mandarin Chinese as the sole official language of the nation throughout the last half of the 20th century, although its influence still remains strong within the region.. How to say yes and no in Cantonese!  Additionally, Hong Kong linguist Sidney Lau modified the Yale system for his popular Cantonese-as-a-second-language course and is still in use today. Developed by the foreign service institute and is now free in the public domain. Cantonese, which is central to the Hong Kong identity, originated around the year 220, while Mandarin dates to the 13th century. This Cantonese course was developed by the U.S. Foreign Service Institute (FSI). (li go) h i gon dUng wa dim gon a? On the mainland, Cantonese continued to serve as the lingua franca of Guangdong and Guangxi provinces even after Mandarin was made the official language of the government by the Qing dynasty in the early 1900s. We made using the DLI - Cantonese language course - basic course material easier to use and more effective. Virginia Yip is Associate Professor at the Department of Modern Languages and Intercultural Studies, Chinese University of Hong Kong. Generally speaking, Cantonese is a tonal language with six phonetic tones. Basic Cantonese at a cost Price: $24.95/month or $149.95/year for one language. For most people, online resources and self-study may not be enough to learn a language from scratch, especially a tonal language, but this might help to supplement your other resources. Cantonese is the dominant form of Chinese in Hong Kong. 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